Click here to go back to

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Chapter 9
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Appendix
Notes

Click here to go back to the Concerned-Methodists Homepage

Chapter One

  1. A good example of this type of thinking was published in MissoNEWS, a publication of the General Board of Global Ministries of the United Methodist Church, in its March 1982 issue. In an article titled "Mission to the World," Randolph Nugent, Jr., general secretary of Global Ministries, said, when discussing the Christian mission, "However, on the other hand, when we look at the world today and study the history of Christian missions, we realize how much harm was done as well as good. When we look also at the other religions of the world and see so much in them that is obviously of God and which grows so naturally and harmoniously out of the cultures of the people, we are no longer confident that we are in possession of all the good news."
  2. "U.S. Threat to Peace Concerns Bishops," by Roy Beck, The United Methodist Reporter, May 10, 1985.
  3. Personal interview, July 1985.
  4. "An Analysis of the Chiistian Left in the United States," by Kathleen Schultz, Monthly Review, July/August 1984.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. "The Bishops As Pawns, Behind the Scenes at the U.S. Catholic Conference," by Dinesh D'Souza, Policy Review, Fall 1985.
  10. This World, Fall 1984.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Op. cit., "The Bishops As Pawns," by D'Souza.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Ibid.
  16. "Where Are the Hungry? Where Do They Reside?," The Presbyterian Layman, May-June 1985.
  17. Personal interviews with members of the Antiguan Embassy, in Washington, and with members of the U. S. State Department, names withheld by request; "Bird Clobbers Church," article in the Outlet newspaper, Antigua, April 26, 1985; "U.S. Church Group Barred," article in the Carribean Contact, Antigua, May 1985; United Methodist Communication News, April 26, 1995.
  18. Report from Cuba, United Methodist Church of the Dakotas area, June 1977.
  19. Remarks made by Valladares at the Institute on Religion and Democracy while accepting the Religious Freedom Award, October 1983, printed on July 17, 1983 on the editonal page of The Washington Post.
  20. Personal interview with Tedla, November 1984.
  21. "The Curious Politics of Ecumenism," by Richard Ostling, Time magazine, August 22, 1983.
  22. Ibid.
  23. "A National Survey of Episcopalian Laity, Clergy, Bishops, Convention Deputies and Alternates," by The Gallup Organization, Inc., 53 Bank Street, Princeton, New Jersey, August 1985.
  24. Presbyterian panel, February 1985, Research Unit of the Support Agency, The Presbyterian Church, 475 Riverside Drive, New York, New York, 10115.
  25. "Study Shows Bishops' Political Stands Divisive Issue for Laity," by William Bole, Religious News Service, March 4, 1986.
  26. "Past Imperfect: History and the Prospect for Liberalism-I," by William Hutchison, The Christian Century, January 1-8, 1986.
  27. "Denominational America and the New Religious Pluralism," by Wade Clark Roof and William McKinley, The Annuals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Religion in America Today, July 1985.
  28. Ibid.
  29. Ibid.
  30. "Discord in the Church," by Richard Ostling, Time, February 4, 1985.
  31. A typical example of this is Father Conrado Balweg, the "renegade priest" of the Philippines. It is believed he fights with the New People's Army. According to the Associated Press, as of Spring 1985 Balweg had a S11,000 price on his head. Another example is the late Father Camilo Torres of Colombia, one of the founders of liberation theology, who, when he finished his work on the subject, joined the Marxist-Leninist guerrillas and was killed in an ambush at El Carmen in 1966.
  32. Commentary on the State of religion in the U.S. Today, Gallup Poll, by George Gallup, Jr., 1984.
  33. Ibid.
  34. All Faithfid People: Change and Continuity in Middletown's Religion, Theodore Caplow, et. al., University of Minnesota, 1983, passim.
  35. Commentary on the State of religion in the U.S. Today, Gallup Poll, by George Gallup, Jr., 1984.
  36. Panel Seeks to Shape New Image and Understanding of NCC Role, by Elliott Wright, Religious News Service, May 17, 1983.
  37. Addresses for the organizations are: Good News, P.O. Box 150, Wilmore, KY, 40390; Presbyterian Lay Committee, 1245 N. Providence Road, Media, PA, 19063; Presbyterian United for Biblical Concerns, R.D.4, Pottstown, PA, 19464; Biblical Witness Fellowship, Box 9327, Knoxville, TN; The Prayerbook Society of the Episcopal Church, 120 Village Square, Suite 2, Louisville, KY, 40243.
  38. Democracy in America, Volume One, by Alexis de Tocqueville (New York: Harper and Row, 1966), p. 277.
  39. Ibid.

Back to Top

Chapter Two

  1. "False Gospel Almost Took Over in Grenada," by Ted Seymour, Presbyterian Journal, May 16, 1994.
  2. "More Religious Groups Criticize Nation's Action Against Grenada," by Religious News Service, October 31, 1983.
  3. Press release from the United Church of Christ Office of Communication, by Hiley Ward, November 2, 1983.
  4. "Grenada Collective Action," from Gist, a publication of the Bureau of Public Affairs, Department of State, January 1984.
  5. ". . .Backward Christian Soldiers," by Bill Reel, New York Daily News, October 17, 1983 and personal interview, Spring 1985.
  6. Ibid.
  7. "Analysis of the Church in Grenada," from the Ministry of the Interior, Butler House, St. George's, July 12, 1983, "Top Secret."
  8. Ibid.
  9. "False Gospel Almost Took Over in Grenada," by Ted Seymour, The Presbyterian Journal, May 16, 1984.
  10. "Grenada Collection Action," from Gist, a publication of the Bureau of Public Affairs, Department of State, January 1984.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid.
  13. "The Episcopal Church and 'The Arms Race,"' by Mrs. Dorothy Faver, The Christian Challenge, August 1981.
  14. "Archbishop Reiterates Speech in Catholic Northwest Progress," a reprint from the Catholic Northwest Progress, newspaper for the Catholic Archdiocese of Seattle, July 2, 1981.
  15. "Catholics Crucify Nuke Arms Policy," by John Trinkl, Guardian, December 16, 1981.
  16. "Bishop Raps 'Just War,'" by Bob House, National Catholic Register, November 22, 1981.
  17. "Catholic Bishop's Leaders Oppose MX and Reagan 'Star Wars' Defense," by Religious News Service, June 27, 1985.
  18. "Sign of God's Grace Seen in President's Nuclear Arms Speech," by Roy Beck, United Methodist Reporter, November 27, 1981.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Ibid.
  21. "UM Bishops Ask Senate to Refuse Funds for MX Missile," Newscope, March 22, 1985.
  22. False Presence of the Kingdom, by Jacques Ellul (New York: Seabury Press. 1972), pp. 187, 188.
  23. Christianity and Power Politics, by Reinhold Niebuhr (New York: Scribner, 1940).
  24. Speech delivered to the Episcopal Church's National Conference on Peacemaking, Cathedral of St. John, Denver, Colorado, April 28, 1983, published in Jubilee, "Making Distinctions About Making Peace," Volume I, Number 1.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Ibid.
  27. Ibid.
  28. Op. cit., False Presence of the Kingdom, by Jacques Ellul, p. 43.
  29. Speech delivered to the Episcopal Church's National Conference on Peacemaking, Cathedral of St. John, Denver, Colorado, April 28, 1983, Jubilee, Volume 1, Number 1.
  30. Ibid.
  31. "Peace and Freedom: Christian Faith, Democracy and the Problem of War," by George Weigel, published by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, 1983.
  32. Ibid.
  33. Ibid.
  34. "A Perspective for Christians on Military Preparedness," by Francis Schaeffer, Intercessors for America Newsletter, November 1, 1982.
  35. Ibid.
  36. "Why the Church Is Not Pacifist," by Michael Novak, Catholicism in Crisis, June 1984.
  37. Ibid.
  38. Quoted in ibid.
  39. "Perceptions of the Adversary: A Problem for Peacemaking," from the Peace Section, Washington Memo, published by the Mennonite Central Committee, November-December 1981.
  40. "Independent Soviet Peace Movement: Official Reaction," by Sergei Batovrin. Copies can be obtained by writing to Helsinki Watch Committee, 36 W. 44th Street, Suite 911, New York, NY 100036.
  41. Ibid.
  42. Ibid.
  43. "The New Soviet Apologists," by Arch Puddington, Commentary, November 1983.
  44. Ibid.
  45. Ibid.
  46. Breaking With Moscow, by Arcady Shevchenko (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984), p. 19.
  47. "The Awful Logic of Genocide," by John-Francois Revel, National Review, October 4, 1985.
  48. "5 Soviets Now Fighting with Rebels Tell Their Stories," by Arthur Bonner, The New York Times, published in the Houston Chronicle, November 30, 1985; "From Russia, With Hate," by John Barron, Reader's Digest, November 1985.
  49. "Tears, Blood and Cries, Human Rights in Afghanistan Since the Invasion 1979-1984," the U.S. Helsinki Watch Committee report on Afghanistan, 26 W. 44th Street, New York City 10036.
  50. "The Modern Barbarians," by L. Thomas Walsh, from Armed Forces Journal International, July 1980.
  51. Op. cit., "5 Soviets Now Fighting with Rebels Tell Their Stories," by Arthur Bonner.
  52. Op. cit., "Tears, Blood and Cries, Human Rights in Afghanistan Since the Invasion 1979-1984."
  53. Ibid.
  54. Ibid.; also, To Die in Afghanistan, Helsinki Watch Asia Watch, December 1985.
  55. "The New Holocaust," by Rosanne T. Klass, National Review, October 4, 1985.
  56. "Remaking Afghanistan in the Soviet Image," by Richard Bernstein, The New York Times Magazine, March 24, 1985.
  57. "Trained as a Terrorist at Age Nine," by John Barron, Reader's Digest, August 1985.
  58. Quotes I and 2, "Crossroads for the Freeze," by Jim Wallis, Sojourners Magazine, January 1983; quote 3 from Sojourners Magazine, November 1982, pp. 11, 12.
  59. "A Sojourner Returns," an interview with Clark Pinnock by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, Briefing Paper, January 1985.
  60. Ibid.
  61. Ibid.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Ibid.
  64. KGB Today, by John Barron (Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Press, 1983), p. 283.
  65. Op. cit., "Why the Church Is Not Pacifist," by Michael Novak.
  66. Ibid.

Back to Top

Chapter Three

  1. "Politics and Baby Formula in the Third World," by Ernest Lefever, The Wall Street Journal, January 14, 1981.
  2. Draft : A Study Document, Economics and Theology Covenant Group, United Church of Christ, August 1984.
  3. Conscience and Dividends, Churches and the Multinationals, by Thomas Oden, published by the Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1985, pp. 8, 9.
  4. "The Corporation Haters," by Herman Nickel, Fortune, June 16, 1980.
  5. Ibid.
  6. "The Shaping of an Issues Strategy," remarks by Rafael Pagan, president of Nestlé Coordination Center for Nutrition. before the Public Relations Student Society of America, New York, October 25, 1983.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. Personal interview, February 1986.
  10. "The Nestlé Controversy - Another Look," by John Sparks, a publication of Public Policy Education Fund, Grove City, Pennsylvania, 1982.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Op. cit., "The Corporation Haters," by Herman Nickel.
  13. "The Taming of NESTLE," by Fred Clarkson, Multinational Monitor, April 1984.
  14. Personal interview, Spring 1985.
  15. Ibid.
  16. "The Corporation Haters," by Herman Nickel, Fortune, June 16, 1980.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Personal interview with INFACT official Doug Clement, February 1986.
  19. Op. cit., Conscience and Dividends, Churches and the Multinationals, by Thomas Oden.
  20. "Scientists Challenge the Center on Corporate Responsibility of the National Council of Churches," a press release issued by Scientists and Engineers For Secure Energy, Inc., April 5, 1984, 570 Seventh Avenue, Suite 1007, New York, NY 10018.
  21. Op. cit., Conscience and Dividends, by Thomas Oden, pp. 47, 48, quoting ICCR Agribusiness Manual (New York: Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility, 1978).
  22. Ibid.
  23. Op. cit., "The Corporation Haters," by Herman Nickel.
  24. "Transnational Monitor," from Development Forum, September 1984.
  25. Op. cit., Conscience and Dividends, by Thomas Oden, p. 89.
  26. Ibid., p. 89, using reference from The Corporation: A Theological Inquiry, edited by Michael Novak and John Cooper (Washington: American Enterprise Institute, 1981).
  27. Economics and Theology Study Group, United Church of Christ, August 1984.
  28. The exact quote (p. 7) reads; "The doom of the wealthy man, whose only description is given in economic terms in Luke, is a difficult notion for those of us who are wealthy (and nearly all Americans are wealthy in global terms) to grasp. We are tempted to think of this parable as being about the need for more charity or a little more kindness or about our own 'spiritual poverty.' When we hear it thus, we neatly avoid even considering the pointed message of Jesus that those who are wealthy while others suffer in poverty face the judgment of God."
  29. Op. cit., Economics and Theology Study Group, United Church of Christ, August 1984.
  30. Ibid.
  31. "Catholic Social Teaching and the U.S. Economy," origins, NC documentary service, November 15, 1984.
  32. Ibid.
  33. "Planning for Sustained Community," by Gar Alperovitz, a paper prepared for Catholic Social Teaching and the American Economy, a symposium on the proposed pastoral letter, December 12-14, The University of Notre Dame.
  34. "Briefs," from Religion and Democracy, a newsletter of the Institute on Religion and Democracy, September 1984; "Protestant Leaders Testify to Catholic Bishops Committee on the U.S. Economy," by the Church Economic Programs Information Bulletin, published by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, September 15, 1984.
  35. "Second Draft of Pastoral Has New Focus on Middle Class," by William Bole, Religious News Service, October 7, 1985.
  36. "Bishop: Capitalism Doesn't Profit Faith," by Lisa Ellis, Dallas Times Herald, November 12, 1985.
  37. The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism, by Michael Novak (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1982), pp. 248, 249.
  38. Ibid., page 240.
  39. "The Report of the Task Force to Review Policies, Strategies and Programs of the United Presbyterian Church Related to Transnational Corporations," issued in 1983.
  40. "Technology Not Answer to Ecological Problems, Says Theologian," Newscope, July 22, 1983.
  41. "3rd World Sermon Notes," from Church Economic Programs Information Service Bulletin, June-July 1984, published by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, Washington, D.C.
  42. "WCC Takes on MNCs in Asia," CESPIS Bulletin, published by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, March 1984.
  43. Churches and the Transnational Corporations: An Ecumenical Program, a report to the Central Committee of the WCC from the Committee on the Church's Participation in Development, July 1982, p. 25.
  44. The Good News Is That the Bad News Is Wrong, by Ben Wattenberg (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985), p. 151.
  45. Ibid., pp. 150, 151.
  46. Losing Ground, American Social Policy 1950-1980, by Charles Murray (New York: Basic Books, 1984), p. 14.
  47. Op. cit., The Good News Iv That the Bad News Is Wrong, by Ben Wattenberg, p. 154.
  48. Ibid., p. 159.
  49. Op. cit., Losing Ground, American Social Policv 1950-1980, by Charles Murray, p. 58.
  50. Ibid., pp. 125-134.
  51. "Mending Broken Families," an editorial from The New Republic, March 17, 1986.
  52. Time, "Redefining the American Dilemma," November 11, 1985, p. 33.
  53. Op. cit., The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism, by Michael Novak, p. 14.
  54. Ibid.
  55. Ibid.
  56. Ibid.
  57. Ibid., p. 16.
  58. Ibid.
  59. Ibid., p. 17.
  60. Ibid., p. 16.
  61. "A Few Home Truths About Latin America," Commentary magazine, February 1985.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Ibid.
  64. Ibid.
  65. "Human Needs and Satisfactions," a global survey by Gallup International, London, England, 1976, pp. 211, 212.
  66. "Report of the Task Force to Review Policies, Strategies and Programs of the United Presbyterian Church Related to Transnational Corporations," a task-force report requested by the 1979 General Assembly Mission Council of the United Presbyterian Church, p. 28.
  67. Ibid., p. 29.
  68. Ibid., p. 30.
  69. Ibid., pp. 4, 5.
  70. Ibid.
  71. Ibid.
  72. Report of the Infant Formula Task Force to the 1984 General Conference, the United Methodist Church.
  73. Ibid.
  74. Ibid.

Back to Top

Chapter Four

  1. "Why Ethiopia Is Starving," by Ralph Bennett, Reader's Digest, May 1985.
  2. "Ethiopia's Kremlin Connection," Backgrounder, The Heritage Foundation, January 17, 1985.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Op. cit., "Why Ethiopia Is Starving."
  5. "What the West Must Do," By Dereje Deressa, condensed in the Reader's Digest, May 1985.
  6. News in Brief, Religious News Service, December 26, 1984.
  7. United Methodist Communications News, by Tracy Early, December 14, 1984.
  8. "Relations Sour Between Ethiopia and Western Food Donors," by Clifford May, The New York Times, February 18, 1985; "Ethiopia's Cynical Regime," an editorial by the editors of The Washington Post, January 18, 1985; "Murder by Hunger," an editorial by the editors of The Wall Street Journal, January 10, 1985; "Resettlement's Heavy Toll," from Time, February 10, 1986; "Resettlement Kills More People Than Famine," from The Presbyterian Layman, March/April 1986.
  9. United Methodist Communications News, by Tracy Early, December 14, 1984.
  10. "Bishops Appeal for Hunger, Peace," from News & Comment, February-March 1985.
  11. Op. cit., "Ethiopia's Kremlin Connection," Backgrounder.
  12. In 1977 employees of Church World Service, a division of the National Council of Churches, told the Congressional Subcommittee on International Organizations that the Vietnamese were doing a good job in their reeducation camps. After describing the good food and making other favorable comments they concluded, "It would seem that the entire process of reeducation is one reflecting the government's commitment to encouraging and enabling people to exercise their rights, restored as full participants in Vietnam's future." As a matter of documented fact, "reeducation kills." The prisoners are used as cheap labor and torture is the norm. The prisoners arc given very little to eat and most of what they get is, by normal standards, uneatable. Because they are often too weak to work well, they are often punished. Tran Nhu, a survivor of "reeducation," was sent to Camp Xuan Giang in North Vietnam in 1966. There were two thousand and six hundred prisoners. By 1971 there were only twenty-three of the original two thousand and six hundred left alive. See Human Rights in Vietnam, hearings before the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, 95th Congress, 1st session, June 16, 21st and July 26, 1977, pages 61, 70-74 to verify the testimony. See also "Reeducation Kills," by Tran Nhu, Freedom at Issue, July-August 1985 to verify facts about reeducation camp.
  13. "The Jackson Tour," by Fred Barnes, The New Republic, July 30, 1984.
  14. From Cuban government newspaper Granma, July 15, 1984.
  15. Op. cit., "The Jackson Trip," by Fred Barnes.
  16. "Cuba Courts Black Churches," Information Digest, August 3, 1984.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Granma, July 15, 1984.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Ibid.
  21. Op. cit., "Cuba Courts the Black Churches."
  22. "Holy Fools," by Charles Krauthammer, The New Republic, September 9, 1981, quoting from September, 1981 issue of One World.
  23. "Introducing Cuba," by Mary Lou Suhor. Cuba: People-Questions (New York: Friendship Press, 1975).
  24. Ibid.
  25. "Castro and the Narcotics Connection" (a summary of government findings), The Cuban American National Foundation, 1983.
  26. Ibid.
  27. "The Narcotics-Terrorism Connection," by Rachel Ehrenfeld and Michael Kahan, The Wall Street Journal, February 10, 1986.
  28. "Inside Castro's Prisons," by Armando Valladares, Time, August 15, 1983.
  29. Ibid.
  30. "Human Rights Violations in Cuba," by Richard Shifter, Catholicism in Crisis, March 1985.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Ibid.
  33. "Church Activism," from Midstream, March 1984, quoting from "Spirituality and Struggle for Fullness of Life," by Eugene Stockwell, Missiology, January 1979.
  34. "China: People-Questions," People and Systems (New York: Friendship Press, 1977).
  35. Ibid.
  36. "Chinese Christians Caught in Government Crackdown," Response magazine, January-February 1994.
  37. "A Church in Crisis Weeps and Prays," Time, September 17, 1984.
  38. Ibid.
  39. The God That Failed, edited by Richard Crossman (Chicago: Regnery Gateway, 1949), p. 15.
  40. Ibid., p. 16.
  41. The Challenge of Marxism, A Christian Response, by Klaus Bockmuehl (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1980), p. 17.
  42. Political Pilgrims, by Paul Hollander (New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1983), p. 7.
  43. Chronicles of Wasted Time, by Malcolm Muggeridge (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1973), p. 244.
  44. Sun Never Sets, by Malcolm Muggeridge (New York: Random House, 1940), p. 79.
  45. Op. cit., Political Pilgrims, by Paul Hollander, p. 336.
  46. "Jews and American Politics, 1984 and After," a portion of which was by Paul Gottfried, This World magazine, Winter 1985, Number Ten, p. 33.
  47. "The Politics of Charity," by Doug Hostetter and Michael McIntyre, The Christian Century, September 18, 1974.
  48. "Are We One Nation Under God?," by Peggy Billings, Response magazine, June 1975.
  49. Personal interview, Fall 1984.
  50. "Jonas Savimbi on the Angolan Struggle," National Catholic Register, December 9 and 16, 1979.
  51. Ibid.
  52. Life in All Its Fullness, by Phillip Potter, published by the World Council of Churches publishing house, Geneva, Switzerland, 1981, P. 85.
  53. Marxism, by Thomas Sowell (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1985), p. 25.
  54. Ibid.
  55. Ibid.
  56. Ibid.
  57. Ibid.
  58. Ibid.
  59. Ibid.
  60. Ibid.
  61. Nomenklatura, by Michel Voslensky (New York: Doubleday, 1984).
  62. Ibid., pp. 325, 326.
  63. "Why Gorbachev Is Worried," by Tom Bethell, National Review, October 4, 1985.
  64. Modern Times, by Paul Johnson (New York: Harper and Row, 1983), pp. 676, 677.
  65. Ibid., pp. 714, 715.
  66. "Marxism Practically Dead in Eastern Europe," by Kitty McKinsey, Knight-Ridder News Service, printed in the Lexington Herald-Leader, November 3, 1985.
  67. Op. cit., "Why Ethiopia Is Starving," by Ralph Bennett.
  68. Ibid.
  69. Ibid.
  70. "What the West Must Do," by Dereje Deressa, Reader's Digest, May 1985.
  71. "The Second Revolution," Time, September 23, 1985.
  72. United Methodist Board of Global Ministries MissioNEWS, May 1982.
  73. Op. cit., The God That Failed, edited by Richard Crossman, pp. 17, 35.
  74. Ibid., p. 68.
  75. Ibid.
  76. "Communism and the Left," reprint of a speech by Susan Sontag made February 6, 1982, at Town Hall in New York City, published in The Nation, February 27, 1982.
  77. Quoted in op. cit., Marxism, by Thomas Sowell, p. 166.

Back to Top

Chapter Five

  1. Photograph printed in Silent Testimony of the Persecuted Church, newsletter of the International Representation for the Council of Evangelical Baptist Churches of the Soviet Union, Inc., November 1984.
  2. Ibid. From the text.
  3. "The Church of the Russians," by Michael Bourdeaux, KNS, Number 204, July 19, 1984; "The National Council of Churches and The U.S.S.R.," by Joshua Muravchik, This World, Fall 1984, Number Nine.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Op. cit., "The National Council of Churches and the U.S.S.R.," by Joshua Muravchik.
  6. "In the Soviet Paradise," from the editorial page of The Washington Post, June 25, 1984.
  7. Personal interview with spokesmen for the International Representation for the Council of Evangelical Baptist Churches of the Soviet Union, Inc., Summer 1985.
  8. "A Word from Georgy Vins," from Silent Testimony of the Persecuted Church, November 1984.
  9. Op. cit., "The Church of the Russians," by Michael Bordeaux, quoting from the Parisian International Herald Tribune, June 22, 1984.
  10. "A Question of Faith-II," by Peter Reddaway, published in the Baltimore Sun, September 13, 1984.
  11. "Soviet Abuse of Psychiatry Continues," by Ludmilla Thorne, Freedom at Issue, July-August 1985.
  12. "U.S. Visitors Praise Status of Religion in Soviet," by Seth Mydans, The New York Times, June 21, 1984.
  13. A Marxist-Christian encounter is usually an attempt to find similarities between Marxism and Christianity. Unsurprisingly, much of the time people who participate in these encounters find these similarities. CAREE is not the only organization to sponsor encounters. One was held at the University of Northern Iowa in 1984. It featured U.S. Communist Party theoretician Herbert Aptheker, U.S. Peace Conference representative Terry Provance (the Peace Conference is a Soviet front organization according to U.S. intelligence), and professors from Catholic schools such as Holy Cross and Loyola. The titles of the speeches and workshops were interesting. One was called "A Catholic Who Became A Communist," another was "Kindred Humanistic Commitments in the Views of Jesus and Marx," and "Karl Marx and Pope John Paul II on Labor."
  14. Op. cit., "The National Council of Churches and the U.S.S.R.," by Joshua Muravchik.
  15. "Bishop Feodosy, Russian Orthodox Church, Appeals to Brezhnev," translated by Religion in Communist Dominated Areas, published in Vol. XXII, Nos. 10, II and 12, 1983.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Op. cit., "'The National Council of Churches and the U.S.S.R.," by Joshua Muravchik.
  19. "The Trial of Father Alfonsas Svarinskas," RCDA publication, Volumes 4, 5, & 6, 1983, translation from Chronicle of the Catholic Church in Lithuania, Number 58, May 22, 1983.
  20. Ibid.
  21. Ibid.
  22. "Why Romania No Longer Deserves to be Most Favored Nation," by Juliana Geran Pilon, Backgrounder, a publication of the Heritage Foundation, Number 441, June 26, 1985.
  23. "Center Watches Soviet Religious Life," by the Associated Press, printed in the Longview News-Journal, June 15, 1985.
  24. The Undiscovered Self, by Carl Jung (New York: Mentor, 1957, 1958), pp. 29, 30.
  25. "The Fifth Seal," speech by Michael Bordeaux to the "Freedom of Religion, Human Rights and Detente" symposium, Vienna, May 1983.
  26. "Men Have Forgotten God," Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, address upon receiving the Templeton Prize for Progress in Religion, May 10, 1983. Printed in National Review, July 22, 1983, p. 874.
  27. "Secular Inhumanism," by Michael Bordeaux, Policy Review, September 1985.
  28. Op. cit., "The Fifth Seal," speech by Michael Bourdeaux.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Op. cit., "The National Council of Churches and the U.S.S.R.," by Joshua Muravchic.
  31. According to Arcady Shevcheko, author of Breaking with Moscow, Arbotov's institute in Canada is a front for the KGB.
  32. Op. cit., "The Fifth Seal," a speech by Michael Bordeaux.
  33. Op. cit., "Secular Inhumanism," by Michael Bourdeaux, remarks by Bordeaux at the Religious Liberty Conference, held at the Institute on Religion and Democracy, Washington, Summer 1985.
  34. Ibid.
  35. Ibid.
  36. KGB: The Work of Soviet Secret Agents, by John Barron (New York: Bantam Books, 1974), p. 49.
  37. Ibid.
  38. "NBC Airs Soviet Propaganda," printed in Accuracy in Media, March 1984, p. 1.
  39. "Soviet Religious Leader Urges U.S. to Respond to Peace Talks," by Marjorie Hyer, The Washington Post, May 22, 1984.
  40. Op. cit., "Men Have Forgotten God," an excerpt from a speech delivered by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.
  41. "Visiting Soviet Clergy Asked About Christians in Prison," by Willmar Thorkelson Religious News Service, May 14, 1984.
  42. Op. cit., "The Fifth Seal," by Rev. Michael Bourdeaux.
  43. Ibid.
  44. Ibid.
  45. Op. cit., "U.S. Visitors Praise Status of Religion in Soviet," by Seth Mydans.
  46. "Farewell to Leningrad," by Marcus Sloan, Houston Chronicle, June 30, 1985.
  47. "Soviets Show the Facade of Peace," by Robert Gillette, Los Angeles Times, August 12, 1984.
  48. Ibid.
  49. Ibid.
  50. Ibid.
  51. Op. cit., KGB: The Secret Work of Soviet Secret Agents, by John Barron, pp. 119-122.
  52. "Soviet Religious Life Surprises and Disturbs American Visitors," by Antero Pietela, Religious News Service, June 20, 1984.
  53. Op. cit., The God That Failed, edited by Richard Crossman, pp. 177- 188.
  54. Ibid.
  55. Ibid.
  56. Op. cit., "Soviets Shows the Facade of Peace," by Robert Gillette.
  57. Op. cit., "The Fifth Seal," a speech by Michael Bordeaux.
  58. Ibid.
  59. Ibid.
  60. "Fact Sheet: The Soviets, the Churches and the Media," by Alan Thomson, July 23, 1984, from the National Council of American Soviet Friendship, Inc., 162 Madison Avenue, 3rd Floor. New York, New York 10016.
  61. Op. cit., "The Trial of Father Alfonsas Svarinskas."
  62. Ibid.
  63. Ibid.

Back to Top

Chapter Six

  1. "A Clash of Wills - Radical Priests Are Squaring Off Against Church Hierarchy in War-Torn Nicaragua," by Chris Hedges, The Dallas Morning News, March 2, 1986.
  2. A Theology of Liberation, by Gustavo Gutierrez (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1973), p. 151.
  3. Jesus Christ Liberator: A Critical Christology for Our Time, by Leonardo Boff (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1973).
  4. Op. cit, "A Clash of Wills," by Chris Hedges.
  5. Doing Theology in a Revolutionary Situation, by Jose Miguel Bonino (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1975), p. 162.
  6. "Liberation in Nicaragua: The Theology of the Sandinista Revolution," by Edward Lynch, A Thesis Presented to the Graduate Faculty of the University of Virginia in Candidacy for the Degree of Master of Arts, Woodrow Wilson, Department of Government and Foreign Affairs, University of Virginia, 1983, quoting from "The Cult of Revolution in the Church," by John Eppstein, Our Sunday Visitor, 1974.
  7. "Instruction on Certain Aspects of the 'Theology of Liberation,'" by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger and Archbishop Alberto Bovone, prefect and secretary of the Vatican Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, printed in Origins, NC documentary services, September 13, 1994, Volume 14, Number 13.
  8. Op. cit., "Liberation in Nicaragua: The Theology of the Sandinista Revolution," by Edward Lynch.
  9. Ibid.
  10. Ibid.
  11. The Letter of Paul to the GALATIANS, 5:19-23, , Revised Standard Version.
  12. Gustavo Gutierrez, quoted originally in Christianismo y Marxismo en la Teologica de la Liberacion, by Fernando Moreno Valencia (Editorial Salesiana, 1976), p. 35.
  13. Op. cit., A Theology of Liberation, by Gustavo Gutierrez, p. 26.
  14. As quoted in "Nicaragua: First Test for Liberation Theology," by Hunberto Belli, The Puebla Institute, Occasional Bulletins, January 1985, Number 6.
  15. Ibid.
  16. "Both Sides in El Salvador Seek Legitimacy Through Church," by Chris Hedges, The Dallas Morning News, March 3, 1986.
  17. Ibid.
  18. "The Case Against Liberation Theology," by Michael Novak, The New York Times Magazine, October 21, 1984.
  19. "Are Multinationals a Menace to the Third World?" by John Sparks, a special report of the Public Policy Education Fund, Inc.
  20. The Spirit of Democratic Capitalism, by Michael Novak (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984), p. 230.
  21. Ibid.
  22. Op. cit., A Theology of Liberation, by Gustavo Gutierrez.
  23. Ibid.
  24. "Instruction on Certain Aspects of the 'Theology of Liberation,"' signed by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, prefect of the congregation, and Archbishop Alberto Bovone, secretary of the congregation, Origins, NC documentary service, September 13, 1984.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Ibid.
  27. God, Revelation and Authority, Carl Henry (Waco, TX: Word Books, 1976), p. 240.
  28. Ibid.
  29. "Liberation Theology," by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger," Catholicism in Crisis, September 1984.
  30. Ibid.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Ibid.
  33. Ibid.
  34. Ibid.
  35. Ibid.
  36. Ibid.
  37. Op. cit., "Instructions on Certain Aspects of the 'Theology of Liberation,"' signed by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger and Archbishop Alberto Bovone.
  38. Ibid.
  39. Ratzinger said that the core of Marxist theory is denial of liberty and human rights. As we have seen in the last chapter, it is not Marxist theory which insists on these matters, but the interpreters of Marxist theory which have used the doctrine for their own ends.
  40. Nicaragua, Land of Sandino, Thomas Walker (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1981), p. 99.
  41. Op. cit., "Liberation in Nicaragua: The Theology of the Sandinista Revolution," by Edward Lynch, quoting from House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Special Central American Economic Assistance, 1979, pp. 52-58.
  42. Ibid., quoting from Guardians of the Dynasty, by Richard Millet (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1977), pp. 11-13; quotes are from introduction by Miguel D'Escoto.
  43. Ibid., quoting from Special Central American Economic Assistance, a publication of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, 1977, p. 57.
  44. Op. cit., Nicaragua, Land of Sandino, by Thomas Walker, pp. 87, 88.
  45. Ibid., "Liberation in Nicaragua: The Theology of the Sandinista Revolution," by Edward Lynch, p. 74.
  46. "Gloom But Not Yet Doom," Time, May 14, 1984.
  47. Op. cit., "Liberation in Nicaragua: The Theology of the Sandinista Revolution," by Edward Lynch, p. 76.
  48. "The Churches in the Nicaraguan Revolution," by Michael Dodson and T. S. Montgomery, from Nicaragua in Revolution, edited by Thomas Walker (New York: Praeger Publishers, 1982), p. 161.
  49. Op. cit., "Liberation in Nicaragua: The Theology of the Sandinista Revolution," by Edward Lynch, p. 77.
  50. Op. cit., "The Churches in the Nicaraguan Revolution," by Dodson and Montgomery, from Nicaragua in Revolution.
  51. Op. cit., "Liberation in Nicaragua," by Edward Lynch, quoting from Walker's Land of Sandino, p. 100; "Nicaragua, the Revolution Takes Hold," by Wayne Cowen, from Christianity and Crisis, May 12, 1980; op. cit., "The Churches in the Nicaraguan Revolution," by Dodson and Montgomery from Nicaragua in Revolution.
  52. Op. cit., Nicaragua, Land of Sandino, by Thomas Walker, p. 99.
  53. Op. cit., "Liberation in Nicaragua," by Edward Lynch, quoting from Dodson and Montgomery in Nicaragua in Revolution.
  54. "Church Protests in Philippines Met with Greater Repression," by Richard Cimino, Religious News Service, December 19, 1984.
  55. "Philippine Bishops Fail to Agree on Pastoral," by Gregg Jones, National Catholic Register, August 4, 1985.
  56. "The New Khmer Rouge," by Ross Munro, Commentary, December 1985.
  57. Ibid.
  58. Ibid.
  59. Ibid., and "Rural Philippines Church Grapples with Rural Crisis," by A. Lin Neumann, National Catholic Reporter, March 30, 1984.
  60. Op. cit., "The New Khmer Rouge," by Ross Munro.
  61. Ibid.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Ibid.
  64. "Options in the Philippines, Part Two," by John Whitehall, Freedom at Issue, May-June 1985.
  65. Op. cit., "Rural Philippines Church Grapples with Rural Crisis," by A. Lin Neumann.
  66. "Progressive Bishop Says Non-violence Is the Only Answer in the Philippines," by William Bole, Religious News Service, October 28, 1982.
  67. Op. cit., "Liberation in Nicaragua: The Theology of the Sandinista Revolution," by Edward Anthony Lynch.
  68. Ibid.
  69. Ibid.
  70. Op. cit., "Liberation in Nicaragua," by Edward Lynch, quoting Anne Fremantle's The Papal Encvclicals in Their Historical Context (New York: Mentor Omega, 1963), p. 168.
  71. Ibid., Fremantle, p. 233.
  72. "Liberation Theology and the Pope," by Michael Novak, Commentary, June 1979.
  73. Quoted in "The High Costs of the Dependency Theory Myth," by Lawrence Hanison, Catholicism in Crisis, September 1984.
  74. Ibid.
  75. Ibid.
  76. "Latin America and the Spanish Tradition," by L. John Van Til, Special Report Number 17, Public Policy Education Fund, Inc., February 1982.
  77. "Why Latin America Is Poor," by Michael Novak, The Atlantic Monthly, March 1982.
  78. Ibid.
  79. First Seminar of the Dominican Interprovincial Conference of Latin America Costa Rica - 1983 - final document, translated by George Dyer, O.P. Province of St. Martin de Porres, U.S.A.
  80. "Rejecting Liberation Theology Termed 'Act of Blasphemy,"' by Roy Beck, United Methodist Reporter, November 2, 1984.
  81. "Distortion in Korean Study Materials Claimed," by Roy Beck and Roberta Sappington, United Methodist Reporter, October 5, 1984.
  82. "Efforts Made to Clarify Korean Church Situation," by Roy Beck, United Methodist Reporter, December 28, 1984.
  83. "Evil Is Never a Road to Good," religion section, by Richard Ostling, Time, February 18, 1985.

Back to Top

Chapter Seven

  1. "In Nicaragua," by Mario Vargas Llosa, The New York Times Magazine, April 28, 1985, p. 36.
  2. Ibid.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. "The Treatment of the Nicaraguan Indians by the Sandinista Government," Freedom at Issue, May-June 1982, Number 66.
  9. Ibid.
  10. "A Witness to Genocide," by Stedman Fagoth Muller, Free Trade Union News, March 1982.
  11. Ibid.
  12. "The Treatment of the Nicaraguan Indians by the Sandinista Government," Freedom at Issue, May-June 1982, Number 66.
  13. Op. cit., "A Witness to Genocide," by Stedman Fagoth Muller.
  14. "The Treatment of the Nicaraguan Indians by the Sandinista Government," Freedom at Issue, May-June 1982, Number 66.
  15. "The Unreported War Against the Sandinistas," by Bernard Nietschmann, Policy Review, Summer 1984, p. 32.
  16. Personal interview with Professor Bernard Nietschmann, Department of Geography, University of California at Berkeley.
  17. "Among the Miskitos," by Joan Frawley, Policy Review, Spring 1984, p. 50.
  18. "The Unreported War Against the Sandinistas," by Bernard Nietscbmann, Policy Review, Summer 1984.
  19. Ibid.
  20. Some Actions and Situations That Violate the Human Rights of the Miskito, Sumo, and Rama Indians of the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua. Dated November 9, 1982, Puerto Lempira, Honduras, Central America. It is signed by Tilleth Mullins, Enrique Lopez, Sigfrid Williams, Wigglif Diego, and Cirilio Wilson. This statement has never been published as far as we know. It was sent to the Institute on Religion and Democracy (Washington, D.C.) in 1983 by tribal elders.
  21. Ibid.
  22. Ibid.
  23. Op. cit., "A Witness to Genocide," by Stedman Fagoth Muller.
  24. Op. cit., Some Actions and Situations That Violate the Human Rights of the Miskito, Sumo, and Rama Indians of the Atlantic Coast of Nicaragua.
  25. These statements were never published as far as we know. The Indian council sent them to various organizations in the United States in 1982 and 1983, apparently hoping they would be published and arouse public opinion.
  26. Ibid.
  27. Ibid.
  28. Ibid.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Statement Before the Organization of American States Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, on the Situation of the Indians in Nicaragua, Presented by Bernard Nietschmann, October 3, 1983.
  31. Ibid.
  32. Ibid.
  33. Ibid.
  34. "Moravian-Sandinista Dialogue," by Margaret Wilde, The Christian Century, May 11, 1983.
  35. "An Open Letter to Moravians in North America Concerning Nicaragua and the Miskito People," by Rev. Joel Gray, The North American Moravian, June-July 1984.
  36. Op. cit., "Moravian-Sandinista Dialogue," by Margaret Wilder, The Christian Century, May 11, 1983.
  37. Personal interviews, April 1986 with Bernard Nietschmann; also, "North American Indians Assert Sandinistas Bombed Villages," by Stephen Kinzer, The New York Times, February 11, 1986.
  38. "Persecution of Christian Groups in Nicaragua," White House Digest, February 29, 1983, source of which was "Communicado Oficial de la Direccion National del FSLN sobre la Religion," Barricada, October 7, 1980.
  39. Ibid. Also, "U.S. Aides Condemn Nicaraguan Curbs on Civil Liberties," by Bernard Weinraub, The New York Times, October 17, 1985; "Reform the Contras," by Robert Leiken, The New Republic, March 31, 1986.
  40. "Nicaragua's Popular Church: Just Another Party Organ?" by Joan Frawley, The Wall Street Journal, February 22, 1985.
  41. "The Sandinista Regime Today," by Humberto Belli, Freedom at Issue, November/December 1982.
  42. Ibid.
  43. "Nicaraguan Harvest," by Mark Falcoff, Commentary, July 1985.
  44. White House Digest, "Persecution of Christian Groups in Nicaragua." February 29, 1984, quoting Cardinal Obando y Bravo, "Comments on the Papal Letter," La Prensa, Managua, August 14, 1983.
  45. Ibid.
  46. "The Battle for Democracy in Nicaragua," Backgrounder, The Heritage Foundation, March 14, 1984.
  47. Op. cit., "In Nicaragua," by Mario Vargas Llosa.
  48. Ibid.
  49. Nicaragua: A Revolution in the Family, by Shirley Christian (New York: Random House, 1985), p. 227.
  50. Ibid., pp. 211, 212.
  51. "The Subversion of the Church in Nicaragua," an interview with Miguel Bolaños-Hunter, a Briefing Paper published by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, December 1983.
  52. Statement by Julio Cesar Montes Aranda, former Sandinista, found in letter written by Congressman Willian E. Dannemeyer, 39th District of California, to Rev. David Preus, presiding bishop of the American Lutheran Church, July 2, 1984.
  53. "Human Rights Violations and Religious Persecution in Nicaragua," Policy Forum, October 1984, National Forum Foundation publication.
  54. Christians Under Fire, by Humberto Belli (Garden City, MI: Puebla Institute, 1984), p. 45.
  55. "The Subversion of the Church in Nicaragua," a Briefing Paper interview published by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, Washington, D.C., December 1983.
  56. Ibid.
  57. Ibid.
  58. Op. cit., White House Digest, "Persecution of Christian Groups in Nicaragua.
  59. Ibid.
  60. Ibid.
  61. Ibid.
  62. "Despair and Fear in Managua," by David Asman, The Wall Street Journal, March 25, 1985.
  63. "A Nicaraguan Catholic Priest Swears His Innocence of Charges of Sedition: A Statement by Father Luis Amada Peñia," Occasional Bulletins, The Puebla Institute, October 1984.
  64. "Prelate Charges Sandinistas Seek to Oust Catholic Church," The Washington Post, June 23, 1984.
  65. "The Expelling of Ten Catholic Priests From Nicaragua: An Interview with Rev. Santiago Anitua, S.J.," Occasional Bulletins, The Puebla Institute, October 1984.
  66. Ibid.
  67. Ibid.
  68. "The Subversion of the Church in Nicaragua," Briefing Paper interview of Miguel Bolaños-Hunter, by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, Washington, D.C., December 1983.
  69. Ibid.
  70. Ibid.
  71. Ibid.
  72. Op. cit., White House Digest, "Persecution of Christian Groups in Nicaragua."
  73. "Miguel Obando: Independent," by Joan Frawley, The National Catholic Register, May 12, 1985.
  74. Op. cit., Christians Under Fire, by Humberto Belli, p. 50.
  75. Nicaragua: Revolution in the Family, by Shirley Christian (New York: Random House, 1985), P. 231.
  76. "Nicaraguan Repression: Church Reports Differ," by William Bole, The Lutheran, November 17, 1982.
  77. Op. cit., Christians Under Fire, by Humberton Belli, P. 50.
  78. "Persecution of Protestants in Nicaragua: The Neglected Story," by Humberto Belli, 1983.
  79. U.S. Government Foreign Broadcast Information Service, Central America, August 2, 1982, p. 7.
  80. Op. cit., Humberto Belli, "Persecution of Protestants in Nicaragua: The Neglected Story."
  81. Letter from Salvation Army LTC Ernest Miller.
  82. "Church officials in Nicaragua Said Arrested, Harassed," by Roy Beck, United Methodist Reporter, November 15, 1985.
  83. "The Lonely Struggle of a Nicaraguan Priest." by Trevor Armbrister, Reader's Digest, April 1986.
  84. White House Digest, quoting The Wall Street Journal, by Shoshana Bryen, August 24, 1983; "The Sandinista War on Human Rights," Backgrounder, The Heritage Foundation, July 19, 1983.
  85. Ibid., "The Sandinista War on Human Rights."
  86. Speech by Prudencio Baltodano during "Religious Persecution in Nicaragua," seminar held by the Outreach Working Group on Central America, the White House, May 4, 1984.
  87. Ibid.
  88. Ibid.
  89. "Nicaragua's State Security: Behind the Propaganda Mask," an interview with Alvaro José Baldizon Aviles by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, Briefing Paper, September 1985.
  90. Ibid.
  91. "El Tigrillo: Portrait of a Contra," by Trevor Armbrister, Reader's Digest, October 1985, p. 99.
  92. "Christians in the Sandinista Revolution," a speech given by Geraldine de Macias, January 20, 1983 at the Institute on Religion and Democracy, Washington, D.C.
  93. Op. cit., "The Subversion of the Church in Nicaragua," interview with Miguel Bolaños-Hunter.
  94. Ibid.
  95. "Nicaragua's Popular Church: Just Another Party Organ?" by Joan Frawley, The Wall Street Journal, February 22, 1985.
  96. "Spiritual Awakening Occurring Behind Prison Walls in Nicaragua," by Kate Rafferty, The Forerunner, July 1984.
  97. Ibid.
  98. Ibid.
  99. Ibid.
  100. "'Constant Surveillance' Claimed in Nicaragua," by Roy Beck, United Methodist Reporter, December 27, 1985.
  101. "Mottesi 'Peace Crusade' Marks Great Victory for Nicaraguan Christians," Open Doors News Service, February 1984.
  102. Ibid.
  103. Personal interview, October 4, 1985.
  104. Ibid.
  105. Ibid.
  106. Ibid.
  107. Ibid.
  108. "The Sandinista Regime Today," by Humberto Belli, Freedom at Issue, November/Decernber 1982.
  109. Op. cit., White House Digest, "Persecution of Christian Groups in Nicaragua."
  110. Op. cit., "The Sandinista Regime Today," by Humberto Belli.
  111. Broadcast from Nicaragua, American Broadcasting Company, by Peter Collins, April 20, 1984.

Back to Top

Chapter Eight

  1. Signing were Catholic bishops Maurice Dingham, Walter Sullivan, Walter Schoenherr, P. Francis Murphy, Thomas Gumbleton; United Methodist bishops Leontine Kelly, C. Dale White, Kenneth Hicks, Ernest Dixon, Joseph Yeakel, Melvin Talbert; Episcopal bishops Paul Moore, Harold Hopkins, William Davidson, Lyman Ogilby, L. Shannon Mallory, H. Coleman McGehee; UCC president Avery Post, NCC general secretary Ari Brower, and president Philip Cousins.
  2. "Religious Groups Orchestrate Opposition to 'Contra' Aid," by Gerry Fitzgerald, The Washington Post, April 23, 1985.
  3. Ibid.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Personal interview with Dean Brown, October 9, 1985.
  6. The United Methodists gave Witness for Peace $20,000 in 1984 and the Presbyterian Women's Opportunity Fund donated $10,000 for the same year. This is just the tip of the iceberg of Witness for Peace funding by American churches.
  7. Personal interview, October 2, 1985.
  8. Ibid.
  9. "Pilgrims for Peace," by Alfredo Lanier, Chicago magazine, October 1984, p. 207.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid., p. 209.
  13. Personal interview, October 2, 1985.
  14. Op. cit., "Pilgrims for Peace," by Alfredo Lanier, p. 207.
  15. Ibid.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Personal interview, October 2, 1985.
  18. "'Witness For Peace': Pawn for Oppression," by Alejandro Bonaños-Geyer, Voice of Nicaragua, published by the Nicaraguan Information Center, November 1985; and "A Closer Look at 'Witness for Peace,"' by Peter Flaherty, The Presbyterian Layman, November-December 1985.
  19. Ibid.
  20. "A Shield of Love," by Joyce Hollyday, Sojourners, November 1983.
  21. "Observations of the West Michigan Central American Trip," by Kalmin Smith, Michigan Christian Advocate, November 12, 1985.
  22. Personal interview with Kalmin Smith, October 9, 1985.
  23. Ibid.
  24. Ibid.
  25. Personal interview with Rader, October 9, 1985.
  26. "Tomás Borgé, Charismatic Jailer," by Merle Linda Wolin, Los Angeles Herald Examiner, May 5, 1985.
  27. Ibid.
  28. "Ex-Sandinista Official Says Visiting Religious Groups Deceived," by William Bole, Religious News Service, October 4, 1985.
  29. Ibid.
  30. Personal interview with Andrew Zuniga, president of the Confederation of Professional Associations of Nicaragua (CONAPRO), based in Managua, Nicaragua.
  31. Op. cit., "Ex-Sandinista Official Says Visiting Religious Groups Deceived," by William Bole.
  32. "The Speaker and His Sources on Latin America," by Philip Taubman, The New York Times, September 12, 1984.
  33. "Catholic and Other U.S. Church Groups Oppose Reagan's Hard-Line Policy on Central America," by Gerald Scib, The Wall Street Journal, December 8, 1983.
  34. Ibid.
  35. "Nicaraguan Church Official says USCC Staffer Hindered Bishops," by Joan Frawley, National Catholic Register, September 9, 1985.
  36. "USCC Latin Policies Under Review After Bishops' Trips," by Joan Frawley, The National Catholic Register, March 31, 1985.
  37. "Remembering a Bishop," by Tom Quigley, The Witness, Volume 63, September 1980.
  38. "Catholic Groups Differ With Pope Over Nicaragua," by Joanne Omang, The Washington Post, July 23, 1984.
  39. "U.S. Group: Religion Not Under Attack in Nicaragua," by David Anderson, United Press International, July 28, 1984.
  40. "John Paul II's Visit to Managua," bv Charlene Muir, The Churchwoman, Summer 1983.
  41. "Nicaraguans Face Divided Loyalties," by Liston Pope, Jr., The Catholic Times, December 2, 1983.
  42. "Religion Focus of Conflict Between Sympathy-torn Nicaraguans," by Gary MacEoin, National Catholic Reporter, August 12, 1983.
  43. Ibid.
  44. It is dated November 19, 1982. Copies can be obtained by writing the Nicaraguan Information Center, P.O. Box 607, St. Charles, MO 63301.
  45. John Paul's letter was quoted in Bolaños's letter.
  46. Personal interview, October 4, 1985.
  47. "Nicaragua's Popular Church: Just Another Party Organ?" by Joan Frawley, The Wall Street Journal, February 22, 1985.
  48. Personal interview, Fall 1984.
  49. "Rome Superior Threatens 'Rebellious' Nicaraguan Jesuits," by Religious News Service, July 16, 1984.
  50. Op. cit., "Nicaraguan's Popular Church: Just Another Party Organ?" by Joan Frawley.
  51. "The Subversion of the Church in Nicaragua," a Briefing Paper interview with Miguel Bolaños-Hunter by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, December 1983.
  52. "Nicaragua's State Security: Behind the Propaganda Mask," a Briefing Paper interview with Alvaro Baldizon Aviles by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, September 1985.
  53. "Who Speaks for Nicaragua's Evangelicals?," an interview with Kate Rafferty of Open Doors by the Institute on Religion and Democracy, Briefing Paper, January 1985.
  54. Ibid.
  55. Personal interview with Geraldine de Macias, October 9, 1985.
  56. Ibid.
  57. "Sanctuary Network Burgeoning in U.S.," by Robert Tomsho, The Dallas Morning News, October 27, 1985.
  58. "The Sanctuary Movement: A Time for Reappraisal," from Religion and Democracy, a newsletter of the Institute on Religion and Democracy, March 1985.
  59. "We Can't Allow All Salvadorans to Stay," by Senator Alan K. Simpson, The Washington Post, July 10, 1984.
  60. Ibid.
  61. Ibid.
  62. Ibid.
  63. Ibid.
  64. "Sanctuary," by Daniel Ritchie, Eternity, June 1985.
  65. "The Sanctuary Movement: A Time for Reappraisal," Religion and Democracy, the newsletter of the Institute on Religion and Democracy, March 1985.
  66. "Rebels Terrorize Local Officials in El Salvador," by Chris Hedges, The Dallas Morning News, May 12, 1985.
  67. "Steady Progress in El Salvador," The Backgrounder, a publication of The Heritage Foundation, February 2, 1983.
  68. "American Catholics Are Being Used on El Salvador," by Georgic Anne Geyer, The Washington Star, March 31, 1981.
  69. Op. cit., "We Can't Allow All Salvadorans to Stay," by Sen. Alan K. Simpson.
  70. Personal interview, Spring 1995.

Back to Top

Chapter Nine

  1. "The WCC Finances Violence to Combat Racism," an editorial by editors of Christianity Today, November 20, 1981.
  2. "Followers of Lenin Will Reap Spoils of South Africa," by Richard Viguerie, Houston Chronicle, August 28, 1985.
  3. "Blacks in S. Africa," by Marcia Kunstel, The Dallas Morning News, August 29, 1985.
  4. Op. cit., "Followers of Lenin Will Reap Spoils of South Africa." by Richard Viguerie.
  5. "South African Rebels Make Comeback," by Glenn Frankel, The Washington Post, January 1, 1984.
  6. "Terrorist Bomb Kills 3, Injures 22 During Rush Hour in South Africa," by Allister Sparks, The Washington Post, April 4, 1985.
  7. Ibid.
  8. "Soviet, East German and Cuban Involvement in Fomenting Terrorism in Southern Africa," Report of the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Security and Terrorism to the Committee on the Judiciary United States Senate Ninety-Seventh Congress, Second Session, November 1982.
  9. "TransAfrica, a Lobby of the Left," a publication of The Lincoln Institute for Research and Education, Washington, D.C., 1985.
  10. "Who Speaks for South Africa's Blacks?," by Mangosuthu Buthelezi, The Washington Post, November 27, 1985.
  11. "The Democratic Option in Namibia," a Briefing Paper interview with Professor Mburumba Kerina by the lnstutute on Religion and Democracy, April 1984.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Personal interviews, names withheld by request.
  14. Op. cit., "The Democratic Option in Namibia."
  15. Ibid.
  16. Ibid.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Ibid.
  19. U.N. General Assembly Document A/CONF.107/5, May 5, 1981, supplement A/CONF.107/5Add.1.
  20. Ibid.
  21. Ibid.
  22. "Namibian Refugees Get a Dose of Politics with Aid," by Bernard D. Nossiter, The New York Times, April 1, 1981.
  23. Ibid.
  24. The Fraudulent Gospel, Politics and the World Council of Churches, by Bernard Smith, published in the United States by the Church League of America, 1977, in Great Britain by the Foreign Affairs Publishing Company, Ltd., 1977.
  25. Ibid.
  26. Amsterdam to Nairobi, The World Council of Churches and the Third World, by Ernest Lefever, published by the Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1978.
  27. Op. cit., "The WCC Finances Violence to Combat Racism."
  28. "Salvation Army Out of World Council," by United Press International, Chattanooga News-Free Press, August 25, 1981.
  29. "Grants to Groups Combating Racism: Facts and Rationale," a statement by the World Council of Churches, 1978, reprinted in appendix to Amsterdam to Nairobi, by Ernest Lefever, published by the Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1979.
  30. Memoir, by G. Leibholz, foreword to The Cost of Discipleship, by Dietrich Bonhoeffer (New York: Macmillan, 1959).
  31. Ibid.
  32. Ethics, by Dietrich Bonhoeffer (New York: Macmillan, 1949), p. 205.
  33. Op. cit., The Cost of Discipleship, by Dietrich Bonhoeffer, pp. 225, 226.
  34. Ibid.
  35. Ibid., pp. 234, 235.
  36. Ibid.
  37. The Cost of Discipleship, translated by R. H. Fuller, rev. ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1960), p. 36.
  38. Op. cit., "TransAfrica, A Lobby of the Left."
  39. Personal interview, Fall 1984.
  40. "Mozambique's Move Away from Marxism," by David Lamb, Reader's Digest, April 1985.

Back to Top

Chapter Ten

  1. Written by Oliver Cromwell in a letter to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, August 3, 1650.
  2. A Rumor of Angels: Modern Society and the Rediscovery of the Supernatural, by Peter Berger (New York: Doubleday Anchor, 1970), pp. 9, 10.
  3. Personal interview, name withheld by request.
  4. "Does Christianity Have a Future - Part II," by James Hitchcock, New Oxford Review, July-August 1980.
  5. Ibid.
  6. Man's Search for Meaning, by Viktor Frankl (New York: Pocket Books, 1984), pp. 121-123.
  7. Democracy in America, Volume II, by Alexis de Tocqueville (New York: Vintage Books, 1945), pp. 144-146.
  8. Op. cit., Man's Search for Meaning, by Viktor Frankl, pp. 121, 122, 129.
  9. Escape from Freedom, by Eric Fromm (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1941), pp. 50, 51.
  10. Ibid.
  11. Ibid., pp. 57-60.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Ibid.
  14. Ibid.
  15. New College Edition: The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1978).
  16. Fromm did favor Marxism as a theory, while viewing the Soviet system as both a fraud and a failure. Fromm did not believe any society had put Marx's theories into practice as he meant them to be. On the other hand, Fromm viewed capitalism not as a failure, but as a system that needs to be used in a more positive, fulfilling manner. Capitalism has brought "enormous progress," Fromm said, going so far as to charge that any critical appraisal which neglected the progress "is rooted in irrational romanticism" and suspect of criticizing for "the sake of destruction . . . one of the most important achievements of man in modern history."
  17. Political Pilgrims, by Paul Hollander (New York: Harper-Colophon Books, 1981), p. 401.
  18. Ibid., quoting from "On the Disaffection of Western Intellectuals," by Richard Lowenthal, Encounter, July 1977, p. 412 of Political Pilgrims.
  19. Op. cit., Democracy in America, by Alexis de Tocqueville, p. 152.
  20. Op. cit., Escape from Freedom, by Eric Fromm, pp. 48, 162.
  21. The Undiscovered Self, by Carl Jung (New York: Mentor, 1957), p. 12.
  22. Ibid.
  23. "Ethics and the New Class," by Peter Berger, Ethics and Public Policy reprint, September 1978, Ethics and Public Policy Center, Washington, D.C.
  24. Op. cit., Political Pilgrims, by Paul Hollander,, p. 408, quoting from Stephen Whitfield's Scott Nearing: Apostle of American Radicalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1974), p. 192.
  25. The Heart of Man, by Erich Fromm (New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1964), p. 38.
  26. Op. cit., Escape from Freedom, by Erich Fromm, p. 117.
  27. Ibid., quoting from History and American Society, by David Potter.
  28. The Gospel of Matthew, chapter 22, verse 50, The New Testament in Modern English, translated by J.B. Phillips (New York: Macmillan, 1960).
  29. Op. cit., Political Pilgrims, by Paul Hollander, p. 406.
  30. Ibid., p. 410.
  31. "Roots of a Revolution: The Influence on Tomás Borgé," by Merle Linda Wolin, Los Angeles Herald Examiner, Thursday, May 9, 1985.
  32. Ibid.
  33. "The Sandinistas," Playboy, September 1983.
  34. Ibid.
  35. "Ortega: Reluctant Ruler," by Merle Linda Wolin, Los Angeles Herald Examiner, May 10, 1985.
  36. Ibid.
  37. Ibid.
  38. The God That Failed, edited by Richard Crossman (Chicago: Regnery Gateway, 1983), pp. 15, 16.
  39. Ibid., pp. 18, 19.
  40. "Strange People, These Americans," by Yuji Aida, Houston Chronicle, Outlook page, January 29, 1986.
  41. "A Political Pilgrimage," by Clark Pinnock, Eternity, October 1984.
  42. Ibid.
  43. Ibid.
  44. "Why the Conciliar Movement Is Facing a Crisis of Credibility," by Isaac Rottenberg, executive director of the National Christian Leadership Conference for Israel, and personal interview, Fall 1984.
  45. Ibid.
  46. Ibid.
  47. Ibid.

Back to Top

Chapter Eleven

  1. "That Extraordinary Synod: A Report From Rome," from The Religion and Society Report, Special Report, March 1986, published by The Rockford Institute, Rockford, Illinois. Taken from a discussion of what occurred at the 1986 Extraordinary Synod called by Pope John Paul II to discuss the Second Vatican Council.
  2. Ibid.
  3. Romans 8:37, Holy Bible, Revised Standard Version.

Back to Top

Appendix

  1. "Grassroots Church Lobby Network Attracts New Notice in Congress, by William Bole, Religious News Service, April 12, 1983.
  2. Ibid.
  3. "A Defection in the Family," by Kai Bird and Max Holland, The Nation, November 30, 1985.
  4. Personal interview, February 1996.
  5. "Contra Atrocities, or a Covert Propaganda War?" by Jim Denton, The Wall Street Journal, April 23, 1985.
  6. Ibid.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Ibid.
  9. "The Sandinista Lobby," by Fred Barnes, The New Republic, January 20, 1986.
  10. "CISPES: A Terrorist Propaganda Network," by J. Michael Waller, Special Report of the Council for Inter-American Security, Washington, D.C.; KGB Today - The Hidden Hand, by John Barron (New York: Reader's Digest Press, 1983), pp. 245-248; "Who Really Lobbies Against Aid to El Salvador," a speech by the Honorable Jack Fields,of Texas, in the House of Representatives, April 28, 1981, published in the Congressional Record, p. El890-91.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Ibid.
  14. Ibid.
  15. Ibid.
  16. "CISPES: A Terrorist Propaganda Network," by J. Michael Waller, Special Report of the Council for Inter-American Security.
  17. Ibid.
  18. Ibid.
  19. Quoted in the Congressional Record, "The Center For Constitutional Rights: Activists In The Struggle Against Our Republic," remarks by Hon. Larry McDonald of Georgia, in the House of Representatives, Wednesday, September 10, 1975.
  20. "America the Enemy, Profile of a Revolutionary Think Tank," by Rael Jean Isaac, an Ethics and Public Policy (Center) reprint, July 1980.

Back to Top



The Betrayal of the Church Copyright © 1986 by Edmund W. Robb and Julia Robb. Published by Crossway Books, a division of Good News Publishers, Westchester, Illinois 60153

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system or transmitted in any form by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopy, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher, except as provided by USA copyright law.




Website designed by JCN

|| Home || Introduction || Stewardship Report || The Unofficial Confessing Movement || Lifewatch ||
|| Independent Committee on Alcohol and Drugs || News Update || Advisory Board ||
|| Case Studies || Testimonies || Interconnection into the United Methodist Church ||